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By Jean Grugel

This ebook carves out a brand new quarter of democratisation reviews via analysing the transnational measurement and the position of non kingdom actors throughout 3 varied nation-states. Chapters utilise empirical info from Europe, Africa and Latin the United States.

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Additional info for Democracy without Borders: Transnationalisation and Conditionality in New Democracies (Routledge Ecpr Studies in European Political Science, 10)

Example text

Modernization is a fundamentally inward-looking perspective while agency-based approaches tend to neglect international factors or treat them as a constant and unchanging background condition (see Diamond 1993). We argue here that research should be carried out to identify more precisely the linkages between the ‘inside’ and the ‘outside’ of domestic political change (Almond 1989), supplementing existing studies (Collier 1993; Pridham 1991b; Pridham and Vanhanen 1994; Whitehead 1986, 1991; and Segal 1991).

Higley and Burton, on the other hand, share an emphasis on elites with Schmitter and Whitehead but argue that elite settlements, although rare, represent the basis for a slowly emerging democratic consensus. Disunited elites exist ‘when {their} members share (1) few or no understandings about the properties of political conduct, and (2) engage in only limited and sporadic interactions across factional or sectoral boundaries’ (Higley and Burton 1989: 19). This leads to unstable regimes which oscillate between democracy and authoritarianism.

In East and Central Europe, democracy was initially thought to depend on the revival of civil society, the arena of non-marketized, non-politicized relationships. In Latin America, where the transitions to democracy frequently carried with them sharp overtones of class struggle, local social movements of the poor and economically marginalized played an important catalysing role in bringing down dictatorships. In sub-Saharan Africa, the existence of community and village groups has enabled individuals to support each other against arbitrary state power.

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