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Extra resources for Nature Reviews Immunology 11, 155 (March 2011)
Et al. Evidence of dysregulation of dendritic cells in primary HIV infection. Blood 116, 3839–3852 (2010). This study examined the changes that occur in cDC and pDC frequency and function over the course of early HIV infection. Smed‑Sorensen, A. et al. Differential susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. J. Virol. 79, 8861–8869 (2005). Manel, N. et al. A cryptic sensor for HIV‑1 activates antiviral innate immunity in dendritic cells.
Et al. Sex differences in the Toll‑like receptor‑ mediated response of plasmacytoid dendritic cells to HIV‑1. Nature Med. 15, 955–959 (2009). 51. McMichael, A. J. HIV vaccines. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 24, 227–255 (2006). 52. Manches, O. & Bhardwaj, N. Resolution of immune activation defines nonpathogenic SIV infection. J. Clin. Invest. 119, 3512–3515 (2009). 53. Mandl, J. N. et al. Divergent TLR7 and TLR9 signaling and type I interferon production distinguish pathogenic and nonpathogenic AIDS virus infections.
A host receptor that can sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns and initiate signalling cascades that lead to an innate immune response. PRRs can be membrane bound (such as Toll-like receptors) or soluble cytoplasmic receptors (such as NOD-like receptors). *University of Louisville Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Oral Health and Systemic Disease Research Group, 501 South Preston Street, Louisville, Kentucky 40292, USA. ‡ University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 422 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.