By Roy van Driesche, Mark Hoddle, Ted Center
Organic keep an eye on – using a inhabitants of common enemies to seasonally or completely suppress pests – isn't really a brand new inspiration. The cottony cushion scale, which almost destroyed the citrus of California, used to be managed by means of an brought predatory insect within the Eighties. sped up invasions via bugs and unfold of weedy non-native vegetation within the final century have elevated the necessity for using organic keep watch over. Use of rigorously selected traditional enemies has develop into an enormous software for the safety of average ecosystems, biodiversity and agricultural and concrete environments.This ebook bargains a multifaceted but built-in dialogue on significant purposes of organic keep watch over: everlasting keep an eye on of invasive bugs and crops on the panorama point and transitority suppression of either local and unique pests in farms, tree plantations, and greenhouses. Written via best foreign specialists within the box, the textual content discusses regulate of invasive species and the function of average enemies in pest management.This ebook is vital interpreting for classes on Invasive Species, Pest administration, and Crop safety. it really is a useful reference booklet for biocontrol pros, restorationists, agriculturalists, and natural world biologists.Further details and assets are available at the Editor’s personal site at: www.invasiveforestinsectandweedbiocontrol.info/index.htm
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Additional info for Control of Pests and Weeds by Natural Enemies: An Introduction to Biological Control
Pre-existing parasitism may be from members of the same or different species. When potential repeated parasitism involves conspecifics (a process called superparasitism), detection frequently leads to quick rejection. The braconid Orgilus lepidus Muesebeck quickly rejects already-parasitized potato tuberworms, P. operculella (Greany & Oatman 1972). Parasitoids may, however, obtain some advantage by superparasitism if unparasitized hosts are very scarce or the parasitoid has a high egg load. Rejection is less routine when repeated parasitism is among different species (called multiparasitism), but rather depends on the intrinsic competitiveness of the second parasitoid relative to the first.
Establishing new species may be easier if parasitoids are exposed first to the pest on the host plant. Similarly, exposure of mass-reared natural enemies to the target pest before release may correct any loss of efficacy (Hérard et al. 1988) from rearing on an alternative host (Matadha et al. 2005). In conservation biological control, non-crop reservoirs are used to produce parasitoids on alternative hosts on border vegetation, but these efforts may be less effective than assumed if natural enemies are conditioned to prefer the non-crop plant or alternative host.
Reprinted from Van Driesche and Bellows (1996) with permission from Kluwer. 10 Sex of parasitoids (Aphytis linganensis Compere) reared from California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), of different sizes, showing that parasitoids place male eggs predominately in smaller hosts and females in larger ones (after Opp and Luck, 1986). Reprinted from Van Driesche and Bellows (1996) with permission from Kluwer. Number of scales bearing an egg euschisti (Ashmead) marks host eggs with a watersoluble chemical (Okuda & Yeargan 1988), and the braconid larval parasitoid Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) uses secretions from its alkaline gland (Vinson & Guillot 1972).