By Sarah M. Brooks
Social safety associations were one of the so much sturdy post-war social courses around the globe. more and more, besides the fact that, those associations have gone through profound transformation from public risk-pooling platforms to person market-based designs. Why has this 'privatization' happened? Why, furthermore, perform a little governments enact extra radical pension privatizations than others? This publication offers a theoretical and empirical account of while and to what measure governments privatize nationwide old-age pension platforms. Quantitative cross-national research simulates the measure of pension privatization around the globe and exams competing hypotheses to give an explanation for reform results. furthermore, comparative research of pension reforms in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay overview a causal conception of institutional switch. The important argument is that pension privatization emerges from political clash, instead of from exogenous pressures. The argument is constructed round 3 dimensions: the double bind of globalization, contingent path-dependent techniques, and the legislative politics of loss imposition.
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941–91; Huber and Stephens 2000; Kaufman and Segura-Ubiergo 2001, pp. 553–87; Swank 2001, pp. 197–8. See, for example, Kay 2001, p. 6; Tanzi 2002, pp. 123–6. For discussion, see Scharpf 2002; Sigg and Behrendt 2002, p. 89. ´ Andrews 1994; Guill´en and Alvarez 2002, p. 67; Kurzer 1993; Rodrik 1997; Strange 1996. However, see Allan and Scruggs 2004; Esping-Andersen 1996; Garrett 1998; Garrett and Lange 1995; Gough 2002, p. 49; Hall and Soskice 2001; Kitschelt et al. 1998; Pontusson and Kwon 2003; Pierson 2001.
For discussion, see Scharpf 2002; Sigg and Behrendt 2002, p. 89. ´ Andrews 1994; Guill´en and Alvarez 2002, p. 67; Kurzer 1993; Rodrik 1997; Strange 1996. However, see Allan and Scruggs 2004; Esping-Andersen 1996; Garrett 1998; Garrett and Lange 1995; Gough 2002, p. 49; Hall and Soskice 2001; Kitschelt et al. 1998; Pontusson and Kwon 2003; Pierson 2001. ´ Garrett and Mitchell 2001; Guill´en and Alvarez 2002, p. 67; Schwartz 2001; Swank 2001. See, for example, Hicks and Zorn 2005. Cameron 1978; Garrett 1998.
29 In its most basic formulation, path dependence holds that events and policy choices made in the past systematically shape later options and goals of institutional development. However, the precise nature and effects of institutional legacies on subsequent developments vary markedly in this literature. ”30 Other scholars emphasize the transformative effects of 26 27 28 29 30 Calvo and Mendoza 2000; Guitian ´ 1997, pp. 17–32; Sol´ıs Soberon ´ and Villagomez 1997, pp. 107–26; Williamson 1990, pp.