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By Henk A Dijkstra

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Note that the range of temperatures decreases with depth. 3. (a) Coordinate system used on the sphere with radius r∗ , longitude φ and latitude θ; the point P is an arbitrary point on the sphere. (b) Illustration to help to determine the components of the Coriolis acceleration. 8) To close the system of equations, the mixing terms (F) have to be expressed in terms of the velocity field (F FI∗ ), the temperature (F FT ∗ ) and the salinity (F FS∗ ). 3. Dissipative processes The representation of the dissipative processes in models of the large-scale ocean circulation and climate is one of the stumbling blocks for substantial progress.

These northern and southern sources produce deep waters that have different chemical characteristics and leave a distinctive imprint in deep-sea sediments. Another important source of deepwater is that produced in the Mediterranean Sea. From here, warm and salty water that is very dense enters the Atlantic. The density of the outflow water is such that it enters at about 1000 m depth. The aim of this exercise is to learn about the influence of the Mediterranean outflow on the Atlantic THC and consequently on the climate system.

Provide an estimate for this characteristic temperature difference (consider, for example, Fig. 17a). 32 NONLINEAR PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY c. Provide an estimate for the meridional heat transport (the heat capacity of water is 4281 JK−1 kg−1 ). d. Why is this estimate different from that deduced from observations (as provided in Fig. 15)? Further reading: Hartmann (1994), chapter 7. 4) Heat transport In Fig. 22, the observed zonally averaged meridional heat transport in the three ocean basins and of the global ocean is plotted.

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