By Wesley C Becker
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Additional resources for Applied psychology for teachers: A behavioral cognitive approach
C. Bartlett (1935) in England at the same time that Vygotsky was writing in the Soviet Union, and it is being revived by investigators who have recently undertaken the study of "social memory" and "socially distributed cognition" (Hutchins, in press). As an example of the kind of phenomena Vygotsky had in mind, let us consider the following case (Tharp and Gallimore, 1988): A 6-year-old child has lost a toy and asks her father for help. " He asks a series of questions-did you have it in your room?
It does assert, however, that "development in mental life follows certain general and formal rules whether it concerns the individual or the species" (p. 26). The general and formal rules Werner had in mind concerned processes such as syncretism and diffusion, which characterize more primitive forms of mental functioning, as opposed to differentiation and hierarchicalization, which characterize more advanced forms. Because of the functioning of these general genetic processes, certain parallelisms may be found between ontogenesis and, say, phylogenesis.
Rogoff and her colleagues (1990) have noted, for example, that socialization practices in some nonwestern cultures involve much less reliance on verbal communication than is typical for western children. This is in no way a claim that such children are deprived of stimulation; it simply means that the forms of "guided participation" in which these children are involved rely much more extensively on nonverbal forms of communication and context manipulation than is typical in the lives of western children.