By W. F. Durand (auth.), William Frederick Durand (eds.)
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Additional resources for Aerodynamic Theory: A General Review of Progress Under a Grant of the Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics
These remarks on the influcnce of turbulence refer more directly to what is sometimes called "fine grained" turbulence, such as is normally found within the boundary layer itself. On the other hand, the aerodynamic behavoir of a body of wing or control surface form, placed within a flow of relatively large sized eddies such as constitute in greater part a "dead air" or turbulent wake, is entirely unreliable, especially as rcgards the "lift" forces which it may be intended to develop. Such a condition may, to some extent develop as between wings and horizontal control surfaces depending on proportions and form and angle of attack.
For lateral motion in other directions, the motion must be split up into components parallel to principal directions and the apparent masses computed separately for the components, as explained in Division C III. With a circle, every diameter is a principal direction. 3. Volume of Apparent Axial Mass. For an estimate of the volume of apparent additional axial mass of an airship hull, there are available in the exact theory the volume of apparent mass for two individual sources (Division C V 5), and the results obtained for the ellipsoid of revolution (Division C VII 5).
For very large values of the elongation ratio, the former factor, kl 1 approaches 1 and the latter, 2. The angle between the maximum velocity and the axis is therefore larger than the angle of attack and for very elongated shapes approaches twice its value, provided the angle of attack is small. With a moderate elongation ratio of the bow, the small angle of attack is increased in the ratio (1 k2 )/(1 kl ). At the point where the normal to the surface is parallel to this direction, the relative velocity between air and hull is zero, and the air pressure exceeds the pressure of the undisturbed air at large distance from the airship by eU2/2 where U denotes the velocity of motion.