By Kole S.
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Additional info for The arrow of time in cosmology and statistical physics
Penrose explores the consequences of placing a thermodynamic boundary condition on the initial structure of the Big Bang (in 34] and 35]). This constraint consists of demanding that the Weyl curvature tensor vanishes at initial singularities. The evolution of a universe placed under this constraint is a very natural one, since the universe must necessarily expand away from a virtually homogeneous and isotropic low entropy state, which a vanishing Weyl curvature tensor implies, towards a state of higher entropy.
One can think of a glass on a table, compared with the same glass scattered on the ground in many pieces. The glass itself is in an `unnatural' state with respect to the silicon molecules of which it consists. The silicon molecules forming the glass were once melted together, in a glass producing factory, to form a system of high order: a simple glass. Such processes occur at very high temperatures and subsequently consume much energy. Where then does this low entropy energy come from? Such questions lead us to higher order branch systems.
This explains the current value of and the large overall uniformity, even in regions not causally linked. Indeed, the distance over which causality can correlate properties has been exponentially increased at an early moment. As noted before, irregularities must not totally disappear since structures have evolved. Quantum uctuations of the in ated elds seem to have just the right magnitude to cause the right irregularities at the end of in ation, solving this problem too. In ation theory seems to be a good candidate for explaining some of the magical coincidences concerning the conditions shaping the Big Bang.