By Claudine Hermann

Statistical Physics bridges the houses of a macroscopic process and the microscopic habit of its constituting debris, in a different way most unlikely because of the big value of Avogadro's quantity. a number of platforms of trendy key applied sciences -- as e.g. semiconductors or lasers -- are macroscopic quantum gadgets; in simple terms statistical physics makes it possible for realizing their basics. as a result, this graduate textual content additionally specializes in specific purposes corresponding to the houses of electrons in solids with purposes, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.

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3), the larger system behaves like a heat reservoir of energy E0 − E close to E0 , the energy E of the other system thus being very small. 27) = kB β0 − E ∂E 2 E0 E A A β Fig. 3: The system A is in contact with the heat reservoir A which dictates its parameter β to A. When the equilibrium is reached, the parameter β of the smaller system is adjusted to the parameter β of the larger system, which itself takes a value close to that of the parameter β0 of the ensemble : the larger system acts as a heat reservoir or thermostat, a body that keeps its value of β and dictates this parameter to the smaller system (we will see in chapter 3 that this is equivalent to saying that it keeps its temperature when put in thermal contact : for example, in equilibrium the can takes the temperature of the refrigerator).

Thus in equilibrium the chemical potential of hydrogen is the same, whether in gas phase or adsorbed on the catalyst, and the temperatures are the same in both phases. 4, one now considers that the system A under study is macroscopic, but much smaller that the system A (Fig. 7). Consequently, the parameters α and β of system A are almost the same as those Grand Canonical Ensemble 51 of the combined system A0 , and are very little modiﬁed when system A varies in energy or in number of particles : with respect to A the system A behaves like a heat reservoir and a particle reservoir, it dictates both its temperature β = 1/kB T and its chemical potential α = µ/kB T to A.

RN , p1 , . . , pN ) 3N h i=1 where CN is a constant depending on N only. In Quantum Mechanics the density operator ˆ = D pn |ψn ψn | n is introduced, which contains the uncertainties related both to the incomplete knowledge of the system and to the quantum measurement. A conﬁguration deﬁned by the data of the microscopic physical parameters is a microstate. A macrostate is deﬁned by the value of macroscopic physical parameters ; it is generally produced by a very large number of microstates.