By David A. Patterson, John L. Hennessy
Read Online or Download Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface 5th Edition - With all appendices and advanced material PDF
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Extra resources for Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface 5th Edition - With all appendices and advanced material
26 silicon crystal ingot A rod composed of a silicon crystal that is between 8 and 12 inches in diameter and about 12 to 24 inches long. 1 inches thick, used to create chips. Chapter 1 Computer Abstractions and Technology ■ Excellent insulators from electricity (like plastic sheathing or glass) ■ Areas that can conduct or insulate under special conditions (as a switch) Transistors fall in the last category. A VLSI circuit, then, is just billions of combinations of conductors, insulators, and switches manufactured in a single small package.
We’ll see many examples of parallelism in this book. We use multiple jet engines of a plane as our icon for parallel performance. Performance via Pipelining A particular pattern of parallelism is so prevalent in computer architecture that it merits its own name: pipelining. For example, before fire engines, a “bucket brigade” would respond to a fire, which many cowboy movies show in response to a dastardly act by the villain. The townsfolk form a human chain to carry a water source to fire, as they could much more quickly move buckets up the chain instead of individuals running back and forth.
A device combining dozens to millions of transistors. central processor unit (CPU) Also called processor. The active part of the computer, which contains the datapath and control and which adds numbers, tests numbers, signals I/O devices to activate, and so on. datapath The component of the processor that performs arithmetic operations control The component of the processor that commands the datapath, memory, and I/O devices according to the instructions of the program. memory The storage area in which programs are kept when they are running and that contains the data needed by the running programs.