By Thi-Thanh-Mai Hoang
Such a lot laptop community books are defined in keeping with a top-down or button-up layer-based standpoint - permitting readers to benefit approximately strategies and protocols in a single layer as part of a posh approach. At every one layer, the books illustrated the mechanisms and protocols supplied at this accretion to its higher layer. in contrast to different machine community books, this ebook also offers protocol-based and architecture-based standpoint to review the pc networks, the web and subsequent iteration Networks. The ebook begins with a quick advent to the pc community and their layout - overlaying the elemental reference versions, the multimedia networking, subsequent new release Networking and cellular Networking in addition to community making plans issues. basic suggestions are defined - overlaying mechanisms, protocols, architectures and prone to manage the site visitors and make sure the QoS for information and multimedia functions. for every method, the writer formulates the matter assertion and illustrates whole resolution - together with uncomplicated suggestion, thought, structure, protocol behaviour, their benefits and drawbacks.
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Extra info for Computer Networks, the Internet and Next Generation Networks: A Protocol-based and Architecture-based Perspective (European University Studies, Series ... / Publications Universitaires Europe)
Figure 3-1: Basic scenario for data communication over the Internet Supposed that the computer A and B are directly connected via a computer network and will exchange data through this network (figure 3-1). During the data transmission between A and B, transmission errors such as delay, loss, duplication and out-of-date of messages may occur. In order to eliminate these errors, a lot of questions must be answered, for examples: What is the reason for the errors? How should these errors be recognized and recovered?
In these algorithms, if a collision occurs, each of these mechanisms waits for a random amount of time and starts the data transmission again. The drawback if ALOHA, slotted ALOHA and CSMA is the transmission delay because of waiting for the timeout to recognize the collision and of waiting for the next time slots. In order to reduce the waiting time in ALOHA, slotted ALOHA and CSMA, each station must able to detect the collision without waiting for the timeout. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) is a solution for this problem.
For using the sequence number, before sending the PDU to its destination, the sender labels each PDU that has not been previously transmitted with a consecutive sequence number in the PDU header. The receiver knows which sequence numbers already arrived and thus which sequence number the receiver expects to receive as the next. When a PDU arrives at the receiver, the receiver then reads the sequence number from the header of this PDU and compares with the expected sequence numbers. By this way, the receiver can detect losses, duplication and reordering of packets.