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By Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

The learn of capillarity is in the course of a veritable explosion. what's provided here's no longer a accomplished assessment of the most recent learn yet fairly a compendium of ideas designed for the undergraduate pupil and for readers drawn to the physics underlying those phenomena.

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The values of Xs are subject to IS1I'2 rN _ V - 3 _ Lqs - Ls s ( kTX s)3/t ha . s = l/kT,x = /3hw = {3haqt, so that kT)3/t 2 q dq = ( ha Hence = ::~t (1) T X 3 t I / - dx. e:y't ~f:~tJ-~3/~dx, . e. for fixed solid angle, the upper limit of the x-integra­ tion is given by the limiting surface in q-space. However, at low enough temperatures the integration extends to x = 00 so that the last integral is replaced by a constant numerical value. The temperature dependence is therefore given by the factor in front of the summation: Eth 0: T3/t+l.

Use the Pq -formula to show that the particle concentration at height z is given by the barometer-formula mgn (mgz) p(z) = AkT exp - kT . If the law pv = nkT holds at all levels show that the pressure variation is p(z) = exp ( - mgz) kT . ] Solution K+M) dqj ... dpj (----u To find the number of particles in range dz, we must multiply by n, and to obtain the concentration we must divide the result by A dz. The stated result is then found. To obtain the pressure at level z, put is a normalisation constant) over all q's to find the stated result with a new normalisation constant B.

C) Use the fact that dW r~ == uVV. Also E = K+ W (1 + ~ )7<. , n; j = x, y, z), and Oi) the ergodic hypo­ thesis that ensemble and time averages yield identical results, prove that C = ~nkT. (b) If the forces are derivable from a potential W, -aWlaq,j, and the momenta are involved only in a kinetic energy of the form n = 3 1" ( a11) 2'1-! Piiy;-:. I,J P'I L Fi • rl, where the bar denotes a time average. == I K aw.. /dt, where Pi = (Pix, Ply, PIZ)' The virial of a system of kT. Also (m~VZ+m~c2-m~VZ)Y' m (-qijFii) This becomes C == 1nkT.

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