By Brian K. Hall
Bones and Cartilage offers the main in-depth evaluation and synthesis assembled at the subject, throughout all vertebrates. It examines the functionality, improvement and evolution of bone and cartilage as tissues, organs and skeletal structures. It describes how bone and cartilage strengthen in embryos and are maintained in adults, how bone is repaired once we holiday a leg, or regenerates whilst a newt grows a brand new limb, or a lizard a brand new tail.
The moment variation of Bones and Cartilage comprises the latest wisdom of molecular, mobile, developmental and evolutionary methods, that are built-in to stipulate a unified self-discipline of developmental and evolutionary skeletal biology. also, insurance comprises how the molecular and mobile features of bones and cartilage fluctuate in several skeletal platforms and throughout species, in addition to the newest reports and hypotheses of relationships among skeletal cells and the latest info on coupling among osteocytes and osteoclasts All chapters were revised and up-to-date to incorporate the most recent study.
- Offers entire assurance of each point of bone and cartilage, with up-to-date references and wide illustrations
- Integrates improvement and evolution of the skeleton, to boot a synthesis of differentiation, progress and patterning
- Treats all degrees from molecular to scientific, embryos to evolution, and covers all vertebrates in addition to invertebrate cartilages
- Includes new chapters on evolutionary skeletal biology that spotlight general edition and variability, and version outdoors the norm (neomorphs, atavisms)
- Updates hypotheses at the origination of cartilage utilizing new phylogenetic, mobile and genetic data
- Covers stem cells in embryos and adults, together with mesenchymal stem cells and their use in genetic engineering of cartilage, and the concept that of the stem phone niche
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Additional info for Bones and Cartilage. Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal Biology
Moss (1961a) and Enlow and Brown (1956, 1957, 1958) contain the bulk of the classic histological studies on acellular bone in the teleosts. For recent analyses see the studies by Ann Huysseune, Jean-Yves Sire and P. Eckhard Witten. 36. See Moss (1961a,b, 1963) for basic studies on the formation and mineralization of acellular bone, Person and Philpott (1963) and Person (1983a) for lignification in plants, and Langille and Hall (1993a) for mineralization of lamprey cartilage in vitro. Meunier (1989) also provides an overview of the acellularization process.
The distinction between delayed healing and lack of healing (non-union) of fractures is evident at the cellular level (Chapter 29). In delayed union, the block to timely repair is cessation of the periosteal response. In nonunions, both periosteal and endosteal responses cease or are not initiated. 22 In most vertebrates, bone grows throughout life. Growth may not be continuous or uninterrupted but bone continues to grow throughout the life of even small mammals. Bernard Sarnat (1986), who has spent an enormously long career analyzing bone growth, listed seven issues to be resolved whenever the growth of bone is considered.
Project. Although the term hyperostosis is usually applied to fish, other vertebrates develop hyperostotic bone. b Hereditary multiple exostoses in humans have been linked to three genes (Ext-1, Ext-2, Ext-3) that code for glycosyltransferases (heparan sulphate co-polymerases) for the synthesis of heparan sulphate. Homologues of Ext-1 and Ext-2 in mice have identical patterns of expression in long bone primordia, which suggested to Stickens et al. 1). 2). a A reversal and correction in the opposite direction is the case of the infilled burrows of a shrimp previously identified as plesiosaur embryos (Thulborn, 1982).