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By John T. Edsall, Jeffries Wyman

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M e a n g e o c h e m i c a l d a t a i n r e l a t i o n t o o c e a n i c e v o l u t i o n , Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. B 4 8 , 1 1 9 - 1 5 9 ; ( 1 9 4 3 ) . T h e c h e m i c a l e v o l u t i o n of t h e o c e a n , ibid. 1 6 1 - 2 1 2 . T h e s e t w o l o n g p a p e r s c o n t a i n a brilliant a n d d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of o c e a n i c c h e m i s t r y a n d e v o l u t i o n . F o r c o m m e n t a n d c r i t i c i s m s , s e e G. E . H u t c h i n s o n , Am. J. Sei.

5° to 83°. Since the X-ray scattering is due essentially to the electrons in the system, rather than to the nuclei, it is possible to calculate the electron density, p, in the system as a function of the distance from any of the oxygen atoms, taken as a center. This electron density will be highest immediately around the oxygen nuclei and falls off at greater distances. 76 A, due to the four nearest neighbors of the oxygen atom taken as the center. Since each of these nearest neighbors is surrounded by four others (including the central atom) there will be 12 oxygens at a distance of 2 .

Hence the melting point, boiling point, and heat of vaporization are lower for H F than for water. Hydrogen sulfide, on the other hand, which is so closely analogous in structure to water, has its protons rather deeply buried in the cloud of negative electricity contributed by the electrons from the sulfur atom. Thus the tendency to form S—Η · · · S bonds is very weak and influences the properties of the molecule but little. This is indicated by the low melting and boiling points and heat of vaporization of H 2S as compared with H 2 0 (see Figs.

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