By M. Lässig, A. Valleriani
This set of lecture notes offers a primary coherent account of a singular element of the residing international that may be referred to as organic details. The e-book offers either a pedagogical and state-of-the paintings roadmap of this quickly evolving region and covers the complete box, from details that's encoded within the molecular genetic code to the outline of large-scale evolution of complicated species networks. The ebook will end up worthwhile for all those that paintings on the interface of biology, physics and data technological know-how.
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Additional info for Biological evolution and statistical physics
2. Planar arrangement of elementary magnetic moments predominantly oriented in the "up" direction (energy + w) with a single moment oriented in the "down" direction (energy — ui). The partition function for a dipole is given by Z = J2 exp(-w i /fc B r) = exp(w/fcBT) + exp(-uj/kBT). (2) i Therefore, the number of "up" and "down" dipoles, according to elementary statistical mechanics, is given by N! = TV (up) = (N/Z)exp(u/kBT), N2 = JV(down) = (N/Z) exp(-oj/kBT), (3) and the net magnetization (per unit volume) is given by y ZJH- ^exp(w/kBT) + exp(-u/kBT) = %tanh^-ltt, (4) where Eqs.
From experimental data for the transition temperature Tc = (3N[i2 /ks, the Curie constant, C = AnNfi2/k&, and the saturation (low T) spontaneous polarization, PSQ = N/J,, one can get the basic ferroelectric parameters H= 4TT TC/C, (15) H = kBC/4irPs0, (16) N = 4irP*0/kBC, (17) for a number of representative ferroelectric cystals and then make comparisons with independently observable experimental quantities whenever possible. 1. T c (K) Basic parameters for selected ferroelectric crystals. 0 * l / i C / c m 2 = 3000 e s u / c m 2 .
1 gives experimental data of the constants a, b, and zc = RTC for a few representative fluids, and gives also the Van der Waals value for zc. It can be seen that, in spite of differences of more than an order of magnitude (related to the attractive interaction energy between molecules), the values of zc remain close to each other and to the Van der Waals value z = 3/8 given by Eq. (19). 1. Transitions 17 Parameters a, b, and z c for some real fluids. 375 H20 C02 A He Van der Waals As mentioned in the introductory section, the behavior near the phase transition is usually described by the various critical exponents.