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By Olaf Groh-Samberg

In der Arbeit wird ein innovatives Konzept zur empirischen Messung von Armut entwickelt, das sowohl zeitliche Aspekte wie den Zusammenhang von Einkommen und anderen materiellen Lebenslagen berücksichtigt. Umfangreiche Analysen zur Trendentwicklung von Armut und von Prekarität sowie zum Zusammenhang von Armut mit weitergehenden Aspekten der sozialen Ungleichheit zeigen das hohe Ausmaß der "strukturellen Verfestigung" der Armut in Deutschland.

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4 Mit diesen Vorzügen sind jedoch auch unmittelbar Nachteile verknüpft. Problematisch an dieser Strategie ist, dass mit der Vielfalt an verwendeten Armutskonzepten und Schwellenwerten nicht nur die Differenziertheit, sondern auch der Eindruck der Beliebigkeit zuzunehmen scheint. Die zu Grunde gelegte Armutsdefinition wird lediglich ad hoc eingeführt und relativ unverbindlich gehandhabt. Die verwendeten empirischen Armutskonzepte messen jedoch sehr unterschiedliche Dinge, und es fehlt eine theoretische Grundlage dafür, das empirisch ausgebreitete Material auf eine gemeinsame und systematische Interpretationsfolie von Armut beziehen zu können.

Aus diesem Grund lässt sich von den erfassten Einkommen noch nicht darauf schließen, welche ökonomischen Ressourcen einem Haushalt tatsächlich zur Verfügung stehen. B. den Mehrbedarfen aufgrund von Erkrankungen – ab, die auch bei gleichem Ressourceninput einen unterschiedlichen Output an erzielter Wohlfahrt bedingen. Dabei spielen schließlich auch unentgeltlich verrichtete Arbeiten im Haushalt, die mobilisierbaren sozialen Netzwerke und infrastrukturelle und soziale Dienstleistungen eine wichtige Rolle.

Eine Reinform des verteilungstheoretischen Armutsverständnisses stellt das Konzept der relativen Einkommensarmut dar, das Armut gleichsetzt mit einem extremen Maß von Einkommensungleichheit. Eine zweite Variante des relativen Armutsverständnisses zeichnet sich dadurch aus, dass die Idee eines physischen Existenzminimums durch die Idee eines soziokulturell bestimmten Existenzminimums ersetzt wird. Am klarsten haben Mack und Lansley (1985), in kritischer Auseinandersetzung mit Townsend, ein solches Armutsverständnis entwickelt.

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