By Owen Chadwick
Might a Pope ever consent to be the topic of a political energy? Chadwick provides an research of the reasons and outcomes of the tip of the historical Papal country, and the mental pressures upon outdated Rome because it got here less than assault from the Italian Risorgimento; and never in simple terms from Italy, yet from liberal events in Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, in addition to Tsarist Russia because it oppressed its Polish matters. If a united Italy was once to be completed, the kingdom must disappear. those pressures prompted Popes to withstand "the international" instead of to attempt to persuade it, to make the Vatican extra of a sanctuary at the back of excessive partitions, and to evangelise the extra otherworldly facets of Catholic religion. whilst they met new ethical calls for: the rights of the laborer in undefined, divorce, and toleration--which they can confront as the Revolution had destroyed the powers of the Catholic kings over their church buildings. therefore, Chadwick issues out, Catholic authority should be way more centralized in Rome.
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Extra info for A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church)
The Congress of Vienna had one article (no. 16) on religion in Germany. It affected the settlement of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which was still based upon the success of the Reformation in establishing peace, that each State should have its own established religion (Catholic, Lutheran, or Reformed) and those who would not conform need not have civil rights. The age of German Enlightenment weakened this constitution as toleration grew. Then Napoleon everywhere introduced civil equality irrespective of religion.
Gregory XVI 21 ands' whom the French army suppressed a few weeks later. At Assisi they grieved that the great convent, once with many friars, was so declined that there were now but fifteen. In the Tiber valley Lamennais was upset at seeing a chain-gang of convicts under an escort of the pope's police. The trio arrived in Rome at the end of December 1831, sure that they were perfectly orthodox. Difficulties were constantly put in their way about seeing the Pope; most cardinals were cool to them.
De Gregorio, 3 Nov. 1832; La Condamnation de Lamennais, 277. '12 The Curia were disturbed not only by the failure to submit fully, but because Lamennais assumed that the world accepted this principle of a division between the spiritual sphere where Christians obeyed and the sphere of the world where they •were free to think and say what they liked. They demanded more. And in a short letter of five lines in Latin (n December 1833) Lamennais accepted absolute submission to the sense of Mirari vos as stated by the Pope.