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By Martin E. Hahn and Edward C. Simmel (Eds.)

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In the white-crowned sparrow the sensitive period for exposure is earlier, at a post-hatching age between 10 and 50 days (Marler, 1970). The young males do not immediately imitate their models nor do they imitate the songs of alien species. Instead, exposure seems to initiate the establishment of an "auditory template" which persists in latent form until the bird reaches sexual maturity, when the template guides the formation of a motor pattern, the song. Deafened birds, exposed to their species song at the sensitive period, do not sing properly, though deafening an adult male does not impair his song (Nottebohm, 1970).

In K. D. ), Insect physiology. New York: Wiley. Sebeok, T. 1968. Animal communication. Bloomington, Indiana: Univ. of Indiana Press. ) Whorf, B. L. 1956. Language, thought and reality. New York: Wiley. 2 GENETICS AND COMMUNICATION JOHN L FULLER State University of New York at Binghamton When the editors of this volume invited me to contribute a paper on genetics and communication I was distinctly pleased. For nearly 30 years I have been active in behavior genetics and have argued that behavior-genetic analysis (Hirsch, 1967) is a productive technique that can be applied to a host of problems in biology and psychology.

MODES OF BEHAVIORAL EVOLUTION As seen in the lower animals, such as protozoa, behavior takes the form of relatively stereotyped reactions that are adaptive in special situations. As conditions vary or as a unique situation is presented, the animal may try out these alternate behavior patterns in succession. In such animals, behavior patterns are relatively invariant, their organization having been determined by growth processes, and the adaptive variation is brought about by the use of alternate patterns.

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