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By Brian Baxter

In A idea of Ecological Justice, Baxter argues for ecological justice - that's, for treating species along with homo sapiens as having a declare in justice to a percentage of the Earth's assets. It explores the character of justice claims as utilized to organisms of varied levels of complexity and describes the institutional preparations essential to combine the claims of ecological justice into human decision-making.

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Additional info for A Theory of Ecological Justice (Environmental Politics Routledge Research in Environmental Politics)

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The example of various forms of radical environmentalists’ ‘direct action’ is given as a way of contrasting their non-instrumental, contextualized, unstructured modes of thought and action, involved in, say, finding various ways of delaying road construction, with the utilitarian, instrumental, rights-based, onedimensional and context-free mode of thought and action of the roadbuilders and their bureaucratic, coercive, regimented bureaucratic guardians of police and planners. Modern(ist) road-systems themselves are contrasted with the highways of earlier periods.

Hence, actual ethical feelings are only ever The case for social constructivism considered 27 data which cannot be taken at face value. They can be appropriately criticized by means of ethical reasons which place them in a different light. Of these reasons, the ones which are designed to get the owner of the feeling to view the matter judged in a universal, impersonal light, are the most characteristic and time-honoured. The facts to which Rolston alerts us in his argument concerning the valuing activities of non-human organisms may well have this role, in getting someone who is inclined to view such organisms as possessing no ethical standing to note ethically significant similarities between the organisms in question and human beings, ones which they may have failed to notice, or perhaps not have taken full account of (indeed, this kind of point is one upon which we will be setting great store in the development of a theory of ecological justice).

The conflation of these ideas leads on to a controversial conclusion. Smith himself draws attention to this conclusion, although not to the conflation on which it rests (Smith 2001: 116). One might be led to argue as follows. If the concept of nature is essentially contested then that is because the concept is embedded within a synoptic view. If all synoptic views are socially constructed, then all concepts of nature are socially constructed and to be explained in terms of the interests of social actors.

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