Download A Companion to Aristotle's Politics by Fred D. Miller, David Keyt PDF

By Fred D. Miller, David Keyt

Aristotle's "Politics" is mostly thought of to be a founding textual content of Western political philosophy. It defines man's courting to the country, the character of political group, the mechanisms of justice and a critique of the political stipulations of the time. The papers during this quantity were accrued including a view to offering a accomplished better half to the "Politics". One dates from the nineteenth century, 4 have been written particularly for this quantity, and the remainder were revised and edited to fit the volume's wishes.

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3. 1265al 3--1 7. ARISTOTLE'S CONCEPTION OF TH E STATE 17 thei r pa rt sho uld be rewarded by their liberation. He does not admit that the slavery of men born to be free is j ustifiable, since, in his view, it is a violation of n at ure. But he definitely holds that there are men (apparently as a rule "barbarians"} whose right and natural destination is servitude; and he adopts the institution in his ideal state. I nto his analysis of slavery and his partial j ustification of it it is unnecessary to enter.

If it means that he considered the laws and productions of human nature to be identical with those of physical nature, it possesses no foundation. " If those who propose to treat the State exactly like the objects of physical science are to find an ally in Aristotle, they must adopt the unity of nature in his sense; they must admit not merely that man and his works are the result of her lower stages, but that the lower stages are (not in a metaphor, but really) the " potency" of man, and that the evolution is determined by its end.

And again: "He who cannot form one of a community, or who does not need to do so because he is already sufficient to himself, is no part of a State, and is therefore either a brute beast or a god" ( 1 253a27-9) . Here we have two characteristics of the State noticed, both of which we have met before; it alone can supply autarkeia, and in it alone is morality possible. The reason why it is necessary for morality lies in the imperfection of man, and in the fact that the State has might. "As man in his perfection is the best of animals, so when he is separated from law and j ustice he is the worst of all," the " unholiest, the most savage, and the most abandoned to gluttony and lust.

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