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By Ann B. Butler

It is a necessary textual content for knowing the why's and wherefore's of neuroanatomy in vertebrates and a good source for examine in cognitive neuroscience and behavioral neurobiology while evaluating neuroanatomy inside of and throughout species.

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Consequently, recombination provides a large number of the variations acted upon by natural selection. Gene flow is a change in the frequency of particular alleles caused by individuals of the same species migrating into and interbreeding within a given population. Gene flow is essential to maintaining various populations as members of a single species, since the most important aspect of the definition of a species is that it consists of a set of populations that actually or potentially interbreed in nature.

Cladistics thus provides a rigorous method for inferring the likely nature of structures in common ancestors and, therefore, which structures are plesiomorphic (ancestral) and which are apomorphic (derived). Could an alternate scenario to the one with the least transformations actually have occurred? Of course! That is why it is so crucial to employ the scientific method of continually challenging and testing hypotheses. Also, the more taxa that one can examine for the presence or absence of a trait, the less likely is the possibility of error in formulating the hypothesis.

This point is of particular importance for illuminating the evolution of various parts of the brain across vertebrates. It should also be noted that, although development from a common morphogenetic field is an important criterion for recognizing homology, it is not absolute. Other criteria must also be weighed. While most historical homologues arise from historically homologous morphogenetic fields, some arise from nonhomologous fields. Such exceptions are few but do occur. The lens of the eye, for example, can be derived from different sources.

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