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The former has been very much the traditional case and considerable resources have been expended to allow residents and visitors to an airport to have easy interconnections with the immediate vicinity. The issue of linking air services directly through airports to other medium and long-distance modes is a more recent phenomenon. It has partly been brought about by congestion of some of the main air service routes, but has also been influenced by environmental arguments. Capture of decisionmaking processes by railway interest groups may also have been influential.

The new airlines will seek out airports where there is significant overcapacity and seek to negotiate discounts. The airport operators will assess whether there is a net gain to them from increasing the volume of business. Spare capacity at airports may be the result of over-investment in the past, the use of airports as instruments of local and regional development by city and provincial governments and chambers of commerce, the conversion of former military airports to civilian use and increased private sector investment in airports.

The cost data in Tables 1 and 2 indicate the type of benchmarking exercises which regulatory agencies perform in order to adjudicate on competing claims by both airports and airlines that charges at airports should be either increased, as advocated by airports, or reduced, as advocated by airlines. Table 2 also indicates that the lesser airports in the UK have lower charges than at Gatwick, Birmingham and Manchester. The data for the eight provincial airports listed in the table after Stansted indicate that Ryanair has negotiated airport charges with at least a two-thirds discount on the Stansted charge.

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